Iron ore

Iron ore is a mineral substance which, when heated in the presence of a reductant, will yield metallic iron (Fe). It almost always consists of iron oxides, the primary forms of which are magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (Fe2O3). Iron ore is the source of primary iron for the world's iron and steel industries.

Silica sand

Silica sand, also known as quartz sand, white sand, or industrial sand, is made up of two main elements: silica and oxygen. Specifically, silica sand is made up of silicon dioxide (SiO2). The most common form of SiO2 is quartz – a chemically inert and relatively hard mineral.

Flint clay

INTRODUCTION FLINT clay is defined as a sedimentary, micro- crystalline to cryptocrystalline clay (rock) com- posed dominantly of kaolin, which breaks with a pronounced conchoidal fracture and resists slacking in water. This definition, a traditional one, expresses necessary requirements but is not wholly sufficient.


Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. It is widely mined and is used as a fertilizer and as the main constituent in many forms of plaster, blackboard/sidewalk chalk, and drywall. ... Gypsum also crystallizes as translucent crystals of selenite.

Florspar CaF2

Fluorspar, or fluorite, chemically calcium fluoride (CaF2), consists of calcium and fluorine in the proportions of 51.1 to 48.9. The mineral is only slightly harder than calcite and consequently crushes easily, but it may be distinguished from calcite by its failure to effervesce with dilute hydrochloric acid


Marble, granular limestone or dolomite (i.e., rock composed of calcium-magnesium carbonate) that has been recrystallized under the influence of heat, pressure, and aqueous solutions. Commercially, it includes all decorative calcium-rich rocks that can be polished, as well as certain serpentines (verd antiques).

Coal Mazer e Sharif

The Mazar-e-Sharif gas-to-power project located near Mazar-e Sharif in northern Afghanistan is the first privately-financed gas-fired power plant development in the country. It will also be the country’s first independent power producer (IPP) project to use domestically sourced natural gas.